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Table2-8. Renal and urinary system (including fluid and electrolyte balance)

Structure and functionBody fluid volume, composition, and osmotic pressure (including differences between children and adults)
Structure and functionLocation and morphology of the renal and urinary tract system, and vascular distribution and innervation
Structure and functionOverall picture of renal function, and structure and function of each part of the nephron
Structure and functionMechanisms of filtration in renal glomeruli
Structure and functionMechanisms of reabsorption and secretion in each renal tubule, and concentrating capacity of urine
Structure and functionRegulatory mechanisms of water, electrolytes, and acid-base equilibrium
Structure and functionActions of hormones produced in or acting on the kidneys, and vasoactive substances (erythropoietin, Vitamin D, renin, angiotensin Ⅱ, and aldosterone)
Structure and functionMechanisms of urinary voiding and storage
SymptomsAbnormal urine output/urination
SymptomsClassification of clinical symptoms (acute nephritic syndrome, chronic nephritic syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, and repetitive or persistent hematuria syndrome)
Methods of examinationRenal function test including glomerular filtration rate (actual and estimated)
Methods of examinationDiagnostic imaging of the renal and urinary system (X-ray, urography, CT, and MRI)
Methods of examinationIndications and contraindications of renal biopsy
Methods of examinationUrodynamic study
Specific therapiesRenal replacement therapy (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation)