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Table2-6. Respiratory system

Structure and functionStructure of airway, lung lobes, lung areas, and pulmonary hilar
Structure and functionDifferences between pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation
Structure and functionStructure of mediastinum and pleural cavity
Structure and functionMechanisms of respiratory muscle movement and breathing motions
Structure and functionLung volumes and capacities, ventilation, dead space (ventilatory mechanics (intrathoracic pressure, lung compliance, resistance, closing volume))
Structure and functionRelationships between gas exchange and blood flow in the alveoli
Structure and functionEffects of pulmonary ventilation and blood flow (ventilation/perfusion ratio) on arterial blood gasses (alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2))
Structure and functionMechanisms of respiratory regulation mediated by the respiratory center
Structure and functionMechanism of transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide by blood
Structure and functionDefense mechanisms of the airways and lung (immunological and non-immunological) and metabolic functions
SymptomsCough and sputum
SymptomsBlood in sputum and hemoptysis
SymptomsChest pain
SymptomsChest tightness
SymptomsAbnormalities of respiratory rate and rhythm
SymptomsPleural fluid
Methods of examinationSputum testing (sputum cytology and sputum culture)
Methods of examinationPleural fluid analysis, and pleural biopsy
Methods of examinationRespiratory function tests (spirometry, pulmonary diffusion capacity, flow-volume curve), arterial blood gas analysis, polysomnography, and peak flowmetry
Methods of examinationExhaled nitric oxide (NO) test
Methods of examinationDiagnostic Imaging (X-ray, CT, and MRI), and radionuclide study (positron emission tomography (PET))
Methods of examinationBronchoscopy
Specific therapiesRespiratory physiotherapy and rehabilitation treatment
Specific therapiesOxygen therapy
Specific therapiesMechanical ventilation