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Table2-5. Cardiovascular system

Structure and functionStructure of the heart and characteristics and distribution of blood vessels, nerves, and coronary arteries
Structure and functionMicrostructure and function of cardiomyocytes
Structure and functionElectrical phenomena of cardiomyocytes, and conduction system of the heart
Structure and functionExcitation contraction coupling
Structure and functionSystemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and fetal and placental circulation
Structure and functionAorta and major branches (head and neck, upper extremities, chest, abdomen, and lower extremities)
Structure and functionMajor veins, portal system, and superior and inferior vena cava system
Structure and functionSolute and water exchange in capillary blood vessels
Structure and functionLymphatic flow via the thoracic duct
Structure and functionHemodynamics associated with the cardiac cycle
Structure and functionRegulatory mechanisms of the cardiac function curve and cardiac output
Structure and functionRegulatory circulation of major organs (brain, heart, lungs, kidneys)
Structure and functionMechanisms of blood pressure regulation
Structure and functionCirculatory responses for positions and movement and their mechanisms
SymptomsWeight gain
SymptomsAltered mental status
SymptomsCough and sputum production
SymptomsChest pain
SymptomsBack pain
SymptomsPleural fluid
Methods of examinationPlain chest X-ray
Methods of examinationElectrocardiogram (ECG) (resting, exercise ECG, and Holter ECG)
Methods of examinationEchocardiography
Methods of examinationCardiac scintigraphy
Methods of examinationCoronary angiography, coronary CT, MRI
Methods of examinationCardiac catheterization (measurement of intracardiac pressure, cardiac function, and shunt fraction)
Specific therapiesRevascularization for ischemic heart disease (percutaneous coronary angioplasty, stent placement, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG))
Specific therapiesNon-pharmacologic therapy for arrhythmia (catheter ablation, electrical defibrillation, pacemaker implantation, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD))
Specific therapiesCardiac disease management programs including cardiac rehabilitation