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Table2-2. Nervous system

Structure and functionComposition of the central and peripheral nervous system
Structure and functionArterial and venous anatomy of the brain and blood-brain barrier
Structure and functionCharacteristics of energy metabolism in the brain
Structure and functionMajor neurotransmitters of the brain (acetylcholine, dopamine, and noradrenaline) and their actions
Structure and functionStructure of the meningeal and ventricular system and production and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
Structure and functionStructure, functional localization, and conduction pathways of the spinal cord
Structure and functionSpinal reflexes (extension reflex, and the flexor reflex) and reciprocal innervation of muscles
Structure and functionStructure of spinal nerves and nerve plexuses (cervical, branchial, and lumbosacral) and nerve distribution to major skeletal muscles and distribution of dermatomes (nerves connected to certain areas of skin)
Structure and functionStructure, function, and conduction pathways of the brainstem
Structure and functionNames of cranial nerves, localization of nuclei, and anatomical path of cranial nerves
Structure and functionStructure of the cerebrum and functional localization of the cerebral cortex (motor cortex, sensory cortex, and language areas)
Structure and functionStructure of the limbic system and its relationship to mechanisms of memory and learning
Structure and functionMechanisms controlling voluntary movements via pyramidal tracts
Structure and functionStructure and function of the cerebellum
Structure and functionFiber connections and function of the basal ganglia (striatum, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra)
Structure and functionReceptive mechanisms and conduction pathways for pain, temperature, and peripheral and visceral sensation
Structure and functionReceptive mechanisms and conduction pathways for vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell, and taste sensation
Structure and functionCentral localization, peripheral distribution, function and transmitters of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Structure and functionStructure and function of the hypothalamus in relation to endocrine and autonomic functions
Structure and functionMechanisms of stress response and instinctive/emotional behavior
SymptomsAltered mental status
SymptomsVertigo and dizziness
SymptomsConfusion and cognitive impairment
SymptomsMotor paralysis and muscle weakness
SymptomsGait disturbance
SymptomsSensory disturbance
SymptomsAphasia, dysarthria
SymptomsAtaxic disorders (cerebellar, vestibular, and sensory)
SymptomsMyoclonus, chorea, dystonia, akathisia, athetosis, and tic
SymptomsIntracranial hypertension (acute and chronic)
Methods of examinationDiagnostic imaging of brain and spinal cord (computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI))
Methods of examinationElectrophysiology study of nervous system (electroencephalogram, electromyogram, peripheral nerve conduction studies)
Specific therapiesUrgent care of cerebrovascular diseases and rehabilitation treatment